To ensure sustainability of freshwater and marine aquaculture, it is important to determine the constraints and limitations facing
the development of this industry and plan to alleviate or remove these issues where possible.

Fish feed

One of the most important obstacles hindering sustainable aquaculture development in Egypt is the feed, maintaining quality and reasonable price point.

Fish food contributes to about 75 to 85% of the running costs of fish production.

The fish feed prices have increased tremendously in the last few years in Egypt and comprises a large proportion of the farm costs. This increase has been attributed to the importation of ingredients and increased foreign currency exchange rates. The price of fish feed are continuously increasing without much increase in the price of the final product, impacting economic feasibility.

Moreover, the farmers usually must buy feed on credit which puts an additional burden on them.

Infectious diseases

Parasites, bacteria, fungi and viruses are incriminated for high economic losses and mortalities in fish farms. Besides mortalities, fish pathogens have a negative impact on feed conversion rates and total body weights of recovered fish post infection.

Summer mortalities commonly occur especially in tilapias from June to October every year with economic losses up to USD 100 million.

This has been linked to infectious diseases but no definite causative agent has yet been found.

Lack of technical training for aquaculture personnel

Usually fish farmers don’t receive specialized or updated technical training for their best practices to maximize yield and profits from the farm.

Concerning shrimp aquaculture, the constraints facing this sector are much similar to marine fish aquaculture and they are summarized as follows: the availability of shrimp larvae, the competition on land from tourism, petroleum mining, the availability of high quality and specific feed, and the lack of trained personnel.